What is manganese?
Manganese is one of the most abundant metals in Iran, where it occurs as oxides and hydroxides, and it cycles through its various oxidation states.
Manganese occurs principally as pyrolusite (MnO2), and to a lesser extent as rhodochrosite (MnCO3). More than 2 million tones are mined every year in Iran, representing 600,000 tons of the metal. The main mining areas for manganese ores is in south east and north east of Iran.
Manganese is the fifth most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Its minerals are widely distributed, with pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) and rhodochrosite (manganese carbonate) being the most common.
The main mining areas for manganese is in north east and south east in Iran . The metal is obtained by reducing the oxide with sodium, magnesium or aluminum, or by the electrolysis of manganese sulfate.
Manganese is too brittle to be of much use as a pure metal. It is mainly used in alloys, such as steel.
Steel contains about 1% manganese, to increase the strength and also improve workability and resistance to wear.
Manganese steel contains about 13% manganese. This is extremely strong and is used for railway tracks, safes, rifle barrels and prison bars.
Drinks cans are made of an alloy of aluminium with 1.5% manganese, to improve resistance to corrosion. With aluminium, antimony and copper it forms highly magnetic alloys.